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DELHI UNIVERSITY MEDICAL-DENTAL ENTRANCE TEST (DUMET) Syllabus

Kindly Note - DUMET 2014 merged with AIPMT 2014 Test
                 


PHYSICS

 

Unit 1: Introduction and Measurement

What is Physics; Scope and excitement; Physics in relation to science; society and

technology; Need for measurement, units for measurement, system of units- SI; Orders

of magnitude Accuracy and errors in measurement, random and instrumental errors,

Significant figures and rounding off, Graph, Trigonometric functions, Simple ideas of

differentiation and integration.

 

 

Unit 2: Description of Motion in one Dimension.

 

 

Objects in Motion in one dimension, Motion in a straight-line, unit and direction for

time and position measurement, Uniform motion, its graphical representation and

formulae, speed and velocity, relative velocity, Uniformly accelerated motion, its

velocity-time graph, position time graph, and formulae. General relation between

position and velocity, application to uniformly accelerated motion, Acceleration in

general one-dimensional motion.

 

 

Unit 3: Description of Motion in Two and Three Dimension

 

 

Vectors in two dimensions general vectors, vectors and scalars, vector addition and

multiplication by a real number, zero-vector and its properties. Resolution of a vector in

a plane, rectangular components. Scalar and vector Product, Motion in two dimensions,

cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration-projects in three dimensional space

(elementary ideas).

 

 

Unit 4: Laws of Motion

 

 

Force and inertia, first law of motion, Momentum second law of motion, impulse, some

kinds of forces in nature. Third law of motion, conservation of momentum rocket

propulsion Equilibrium of concurrent forces, Static and kinetic friction, lubrication,

Internal and non-internal frames (elementary ideas).

 

 

Unit 5: Work Energy and Power

 

 

Work done by a constant force and by a variable force, unit of work, kinetic energy,

power Elastic collision in one and two dimensions, Potential energy, gravitational

potential energy of spring, Different forms of energy, mass energy equivalence,

conservation of energy

 

 

Unit 6: Rotational Motion

 

 

Centre of mass of a two system, momentum conservation and centre of mass motion,

Centre of mass of rigid body, general motion of a rigid body, nature of rotational motion

of single particle in two dimensions only, torque, angular momentum and its

geometrical and physical meaning, conservation of angular momentum, examples of

circular motion (car on a level circular road, car on banked road, pendulum swinging in

a vertical plane) Momentum of intertia, its physical significance, parallel axis and

perpendicular axis theorem (statement only).

 

 

Unit 7: Gravitation

 

 

Acceleration due to gravity, one dimensional motion under gravity, two-dimensional

motions under gravity, Universal law of gravitation, internal and gravitational mass,

variation in the acceleration due to gravity of the earth, orbital velocity, geostationary

satellites, gravitational potential energy near the surface of earth, gravitational, escape

velocity.

 

 

Unit 8: Heat and Thermodynamics

 

 

Specific heat at constant volume and constant pressure of ideal gas relation between

them. First law of thermodynamics. Thermodynamic state, equation of state and

isothermal pressure temperature phase diagram. Thermodynamic processes (reversible,

irreversible, isothermal, adiabatic), Carnot cycle, second law of thermodynamics,

efficiency of heat engines, Conduction, convention and radiation thermal conductivity,

black body radiation, Wien’s law, Stefan’s Law, Newton’s Law of Cooling.

 

 

Unit 9: Oscillations

 

 

Periodic motion, simple harmonic motion (S.H.M.) and its equation of motion,

Oscillations due to a spring, kinetic energy and potential energy in S.H.M., simple

pendulum, physical concepts of forced oscillations, resonance and damped oscillations.

 

 

Unit 10: Waves

 

 

Wave motion, speed of wave motion, principle of super-positions reflection of waves,

harmonic waves (qualitative treatment only) standing waves and normal modes and its

graphical representation. Beats, Doppler Effect, Musical Scale, Accoustics of building.

 

 

Unit 11: Electrostatics

 

 

Frictional electricity, charges and their conservation, elementary unit, Columbo’s law,

dielectric constant, electric field, electric field due to a point charge, di-pole field and

dipoles’ behaviour in and uniform (2-dimentional) electric field, flux, Gauss’s law in

simple geometric, Conductors and insulators, presence of free charges and bound

charges inside a conductor, Dielectric (concept only), Capacitance (parallel plate) series

and parallel, energy of capacitor, high voltage generators, atmospheric electricity.

 

 

Unit 12: Current Electricity

 

 

Introduction (flow of current), sources of e.m.f. (cells: simple, secondary, chargeable),

electric current, resistance of different materials, temperature dependence, thermoistor,

specific assistivity, colour code for carbon resistance. Ohm’s law, Kirchoff’s law,

resistance in series and parallel, series and parallel circuits. Wheatstone’s bridge,

measurement of voltage and currents potentiometer.

 

 

Unit 13: Thermal and Chemical Effect of Current

 

 

Electric power, heating effect of currents, chemical effect and laws of electrolysis,

simple concept of thermoelectricity thermocouple.

 

 

Unit 14:

Magnetic Effect of Currents

 

 

 

Oested’s observation, Biot-Savarts law (magnetic field due to a current elecment),

magnetic field due to a straight wire, circular loop and solenoid. Force a moving

charges in a uniform magnetic field, (Lorentz force), cyclotron (simple idea), force and

torque on currents in a magnetic field, forces between two currents, definition of

ampere, moving coil galvanometer, ammeter and voltmeter.

 

 

Unit 15: Magnetism

 

 

Barmagnet (comparison with solenoid), lines of force, torque on a bar magnet in

magnetic field, earth’s magnetic field, tangent galvanometer, vibration magnetometer,

para, dia and ferromagnetism (simple idea)

 

 

Unit 16: Electromagnetic induction and Alternating Currents

 

 

Induced e.m.f., Faraday’s Law, Lenz’s law, induction, self and mutual inductance,

alternating currents, impedance and reactance power in a.c., electrical machines and

devices (transformer induction coli generator, simple motors, choke and starter).

 

 

Unit 17: Electromagnetic Waves (Qualitative Treatment)

 

 

Electromagnetic oscillations, some history of electromagnetic waves (Maxwell, Hertz,

Bose, Marconi), electromagnetic spectrum (radio, micro-waves, infra-red, optical,

ultraviolet, X-rays, alpha, beta and gamma rays) including elementary facts about their

uses and propagation, properties at atmosphere w.r.t. various parts of electromagnetic

spectrum.

 

 

Unit 18: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments

 

 

Ray Optics as a limiting case of wave optics, reflection, total internal reflection, optical,

fiber, curved mirror, lenses, mirror and lens formulae, dispersion by a prism,

spectrometer and spectri-absorptionand emission; scattering, rainbows, Magnification

and resolving power; telescope (Astronomical), microscope.

 

 

Unit 19: Electrons and Photons

 

 

Discovery of electron e/m for an electron, electrical conduction in gases, particle nature

of light, Einstein’s photo electric equation photocells.

 

 

Unit 20: Atoms, Molecules and Nuclei

 

 

Rutherford model of the atom, Bohr model, energy quantization, hydrogen spectrum,

composition of nucleus, atomic masses isotopes, size of nucleus, radio-activity, Mass

energy relation, nuclear fission and fusion, nuclear holocaust.

 

 

Unit 21: Solids and Semiconductor Devices

 

 

Crystal Structure-Unit Cell: single, poly and liquid crystal (concept only).

Energy bands in solids, conductors, insulators and semi-conductors, P-N Junction,

Diodes, Junction transistor, diode as rectifier, transistor as an amplifier and oscillator,

logic gate and combination of gates.

 

 

CHEMISTRY

 

 

  

Unit 1: Atoms, Molecules and Chemical Arithmetic

 

Measurement in Chemistry (significant figure, SI unit, Dimensional analysis).

Chemical classification of matter (mixture, compounds and elements, and purification).

Law of chemical combination and Dalton’s Atomic Theory. Atomic Mass (mole

concept, determination of chemical formulas). Chemical equation (balancing of

chemical equation and calculations using chemical equations).

 

 

Unit 2: Elements, their Occurrence and Extraction

 

 

Earth as a source of elements. Elements in Biology. Elements in sea. Extraction of

metals (metallurgical process, production of concentrated ore, production of metals and

their purification). Mineral wealth of India. Qualitative test of metals.

 

 

Unit 3: State of Matter

 

 

Gaseous state (measurable properties of gases. Boyle’s Law, Charies law and absolute

scale of temperature, Avogardro’s hypothesis, ideal gas equation. Delton’s law of

partial pressure). Kinetic Molecular theory of gases (the microscopic model of gas

deviation for ideal behaviour).

The solid state (classification of solids, Z-rays studies of crystal lattices and unit cells,

packing of constituent of crystals). Liquid state(Properties of liquids, Vapour pressure,

Surface Tension, Viscosity).

 

 

Unit 4: Atomic Structures

 

 

Constituents of the atom (Discovery of electron, nuclear model of the atom).

Electronic structure of atoms (nature of light and electromagnetic waves, atomic

spectra, Bohr’s model of Hydrogen atom, Quantum mechanical model of the atom,

electronic configuration of atoms, Aufbau Principle).

 

 

Unit 5: Chemical Families-Periodic Properties.

 

 

Mandeleev’s Periodic Table. Modern Periodic Law, Types of elements (Representative

elements S & P block element, inner transition elements – D – block elements) Periodic

trends in properties (Ionization energy, electron, affinity, atomic radii, valence,

periodicity in properties of compounds).

 

 

Unit 6: Bonding and Molecular Structure

 

 

Chemical bonds and Lewis structure shapes of molecules (VSEPR Theory). Quantum

theory of the covalent bond (Hydrogen and some other simple molecules, carbon

compounds, Hybridization, Boron and Beryllium compounds). Coordinate covalent

bond (ionic bond as an extreme case of polar covalent bond, ionic character of

molecules and polar molecules). Bonding in Solid State (ionic, molecular and covalent

solids, metals), Hydrogen bond, Resonance.

 

 

Unit 7: Carbon and its Compounds

 

 

Elemental Carbon, Carbon compounds, Inorganic compounds of carbon (Oxides of

Carbon, Halides, carbides), organic compounds, Nomenclature of organic compounds

(Hydrocarbons, functional groups). Some common organic compounds (Alkanes,

alkenes, Alkynes, alcohols, Aldehyde, Ketones, Halides, Acids, nitro compounds and

Amines).

 

 

Unit 8: Energetic

 

 

Energy changes during a chemical reaction, Internal energy and Enthalpy, enthalpy

Changes, Original Enthalpy Changes in Reaction, Hess’s Law of constant heat

summation, numerical based on these concepts).

Heat of reactions (Heat of neutralization, heat of combustion, heat of fusion and

vaporization).

Source of Energy (Conservation of energy sources and identification of alternative

sources, pollution associated with consumption of fuels. The sun as the primary

source).

What decides the direction of a spontaneous changes in a chemical reaction? (an

elementary idea of free energy change).

Why energy crisis if energy is conserved in nature.

 

 

Unit 9: Chemical Equilibrium

 

 

Equilibria involving physical changes (solid-liquid, liquid-gas equilibria, equilibrium

involving dissolution of solid in liquids or gases in liquids, general characteristics of

equilibrium involving physical processes).

Equilibria involving chemical system (the law of chemical equilibrium, the magnitude

of the equilibrium constant, numerical problems).

Effect of changing conditions of systems at equilibrium (changes of concentration,

changes of temperature, effect of catalyst – i.e. Chateller’s principle).

Equlibria involving ions (ionization of electrolytes, weak and strong electrolytes, acidbase

equilibrium, various concepts of acids and bases, ionization of water, pH, solubility

product, numerical based on theses concept).

 

 

Unit 10: Redox Reactions

 

 

Oxidation and reduction as an transfer process. Redox reactions in acqueous solutionselectrochemical

cells. EMF of a galvanic cells. Dependence of EMF on concentration

and temperature (nearest equation and numerical problem based on it). Electrolysis.

Oxidation numbers (rule for assigning oxidation number, redox reaction in terms of

oxidation number and nomenclature). Balancing oxidation-reduction equations.

 

 

Unit 11: Rates of Chemical Reactions

 

 

Rate of reactions. Instantaneous rate of a reaction and order of reaction. Factors

affecting rates of reaction (factors affecting rate of encountered between the reactant

molecules, effect of temperature on the reaction rate, concept of activation energy,

catalysis). Effect of light on rates of reaction. Elementary reactions are step to more

complex reactions. How fast are chemical reactions.

 

 

Unit 12: Chemistry of Non-metals-I

(Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen)

 

 

Hydrogen (position in periodic table, occurrence isotopes, properties, reaction and uses).

Oxygen (occurrence, preparation, properties and reaction, uses, simple oxides, ozone)

Water and hydrogen peroxide (structure of water molecule and its aggregates, physical

and chemical properties of water, Hard and soft water, water softening, hydrogen

peroxides-preparation, properties, structure and uses). Nitrogen (preparation properties,

uses, compounds of Nitrogen Ammonia, Oxides of Nitrogen Nitric Acid = preparation,

properties, and uses).

 

 

Unit 13: Chemistry of Non-metals – II

 

 

(Boron, silicon, phosphorus, sulpher, halogens and its noble gases). Boron (occurrence,

isolation, physical and chemical properties, borex and boric acid, uses of boron and its

compounds).

Silicon (occurrence; preparation and properties, silicates, silica and glass).

Phosphorus (occurrence, preparation and properties, oxides and oxyacids of phosphorus,

chemical fertilizers).

Sulpher (occurrence and extraction, properties and reactions oxide; sulphuric acidprepation,

properties and uses; Sodium thiosulphate).

Halogens (occurrence, preparation, properties, hydrogen halides uses of halogens).

Noble gases (discovery, occurrence and isolation, physical properties, chemistry of

noble gases and their uses).

 

 

Unit 14: Chemistry of Lighter Metals

 

 

Sodium and potassium (occurrence and extraction, properties and use, important

compounds- Nacl2, Na2CO3, NaHCO3, NaOH, KCl, KOH)

Magnesium and calcium (occurrence and extraction , properties and uses, important

compounds MgCl2, MgSO4, CaO(OH) 2, CaCO3, CaSO4, Plaster of Paris)

Aluminum (occurrence, extraction, properties and uses compounds AlCl3, alums)

Cement

Biological role of Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium and Calcium.

 

 

Unit 15: Chemistry of Heavier Metals

 

 

Iron (occurrence and extraction, compounds of iron, oxides, halides, sulphides, sulphate,

alloy steel).

Copper, silver and gold (occurrence and extraction, properties and uses, compoundsoxides,

sulphides, halides and sulphate , photography).

Zinc and mercury (occurrence and extraction, properties, compounds-oxides, halides

suphides and sulphate, uses).

Tin and Lead (occurrence and extraction, properies, uses , compounds-oxides, sulphides

halides).

 

 

Unit 16: Structure and Shape(s) of Hydrocarbons.

 

 

Alkanes (Structure, Isomerism, conformation).

Stereo Isomerism and Chirality (origin of Chirality, optical reletiaon, recemic mixture).

Alkenes (Isomerism including cis-trans).

Alkynes.

Arenes (structure of benzener resonance structure, isomerism in arenes).

 

 

Unit 17: Preparation and Properties of Hydrocarbons

 

 

Sources of hydrocarbons (origin and composition of coal and petroleum; Hydrocarbons

from coal and petroleum, cracking and reforming, quality of gasoline-octane number,

gasoline additives).

Laboratory preparation of alkanes (preparation from unsaturated hydrocarbons, alkyl

halides and carboxylic acids).

Laboratory preparation of alkynes (preparation from alcohols, alkyl halides).

Laboratory preparation of alkyes (preparation from calcium carbide and accetylene).

Physical properties of alkynes (boiling and melting points solubility and density).

Reactions of hydrocarbons (oxidation, addition, substitution and miscellaneous

reactions).

 

 

Unit 18: Purification and Characterization of Organic Compounds.

 

 

Purificaiton (crystallisation, sublimation, distillation, differential extraction,

chromatography).

Qualitative analysis (analysis of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and halogens).

Quantitative analysis (estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogens, sulphur,

phosphorus and oxygen).

Determination of molecular mass (Victor Mayer’s method volumetric method).

Calculation of empirical formula and molecular formula.

Numerical problems in organic quantitative analysis, modern methods of structure

elucidation.

 

 

Unit 19: The molecules of Life

 

 

The Cell Carbohydrates (monosaccharides, disaccharide and polysaccharides). Proteins

(amino acids, peptide bond, structure of proteins (amino acids, peptide bond, structure

of proteins, teritiary structure of proteins and denaturation, enzymes). Nucleic acids

(structure, the double helix, biological function of nucleic acid, viruses), Liquids.

 

 

Unit 20: Atomic structure and Chemical Bonding

 

 

Atoms, Dual nature of matter and Radiation. The Uncertainty principle. Orbitals and

Quantum numbers, Shapers of orbitals, Electronic configuration of atoms.

Molecules : Molecular orbital method, Hybridisation, Dipoemoment and structure of molecules.

 

 

Unit 21: The Solid State

 

 

Structure of simple ionic compounds, Close-packed structures, Ionic-radii, Silicates

(elementary ideas) Imperfection of solids (point defect only). Properties of solids,

Amorphous solids.

The Gaseous state, ideal gas equation-Kinetic theory (fundamentals only)

 

 

Unit 22: Solutions

 

 

Types of solutions. Vapour-pressure of solutions and Rault’s law. Colligative

properties. Non-ideal solution and abnormal molecular masses. Mole conceptstoichemistry,

volumetric analysis-concentration unit.

 

 

Unit 23: Chemical Thermodynamics

 

 

First law of thermodynamics : Internal energy, Enthalphy, application of first law of

thermodynamics.

Second law of thermodynamics : Entropy, Free energy, Soontaneity of a chemical

reaction, free energy change and chemical equilibrium, free energy as energy available

for useful world.

Third law of thermodynamics.

 

 

Unit 24: Electrochemistry

 

 

Electrolytic conduction, voltage cell, Electrode potential and Electromotive force.

Gibbb’s free energy and cell potential. Electrode potential and electrolysis, Primary

cells including fuel cells. Corrosion.

 

 

Unit 25: Chemical Kinetics

 

 

Rate expression. Order of a reaction (with suitable examples). Units of rates and

specific rate constants. Order of reaction and concentration. (study will be confined to

first order only). Temperature dependence of rate constant-East reaction (only

elementary idea), mechanism of reaction (only elementary idea), Photochemical

reactions.

 

 

Unit 26: Organic chemistry Based on Functional Groups-I.

 

 

Halides and Hydroxy compounds.

Nomenclature of compounds containing halogen atoms and hydroxyl groups,

haloalkanes, haloarenes, alcolois and phenols.

Correlation of physical properties and uses.

Preparation, properties and uses of following:

Polyhydric compounds: Ethane-1, 2-diol; Propane – 1,2,3 triol Structure and reactivity –

(a) Induction effect, (b) Mesomeric effect, (c) Electrohiles and Meleophiles (d) Types of

organic reaction.

 

 

Unit 27: Organic Chemistry Based on Functional Group-II

 

 

(Ethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and their derivatives). Nomenclature of

ethers , aldehydes, ketones carboxylic acids and their derivatives.

(alcalides, acid anhydrides, amides and esters).

General methods of preparation, correlation of physical properties with their structure

chemical properties and uses.

[Note: Specific compounds should not be stressed for the purpose of evaluation].

 

 

Unit 28: Organic Chemistry Based on Functional Group-III

 

 

(Cyanides, isocynaides, nitrocompounds and amines).

Nomenclature of cyanides and isocyanides; nitro compounds and amines; and their

method of preparation; correlation of physical properties with structure, chemical

reaction and uses.

 

 

Unit 29: Chemistry of Representative Elements

 

 

Periodic properties – Trens in groups and periods (a) oxides-nature (b) Hallides-melting

point (c) Carbonates and Sulphastes solubility. The chemistry of S and P block

elements, electronic configuration, general characteristic properties and oxidation states

of the following:

Group 1

Group 2

Group 13

Group 14

Group 15

Group 16

Group 17

Group 18

Elements – Alkali metals

Elements – alkaline earth metals.

Elements – Boron family.

Elements – Carbon family.

Elements – Nitrogen family.

Elements – Oxygen family.

Elements – Halogen family.

Elements – Noble gases and Hydrogen.

 

 

Unit 30: Transition Metals including Lanthanides

 

 

Electronic Configuration: General characteristic properties, oxidation states of transition

metals.

First row transition metals and general properties of their compound-oxide, halides and

sulphides.

General properties of second and third row transition elements (GroupWise discussion)

Preparation of Potassium dichromate, Potassium permanganate.

Inner transition elements : General discussion with special reference to oxidation states

and Lanthanide contraciton.

 

 

Unit 31: Coordination Chemistry and Organo Metallics

 

 

Coordination compounds-Nomenclature : Isomerism in Coordination compounds;

Bonding in Coordination compounds; Stability of Coordination compounds;

Compounds containing metal-carbon bond; Application of organometallics.

 

 

Unit 32: Nuclear Chemistry

 

 

Nature of radiation from radioactive substances. Nuclear structure and nuclear

properties; Nuclear reactions; Radioactive disintegration series, Artificial transmulation

of elements; Nuclear fission and Nuclear fusion; isotopes and their uses; Radio

carbondating; synthetic elements.

 

 

Unit 33: Synthetic and Natural Polymers

 

 

Classification of polymers, natural and synthetic polymers (with stree and their general

methods of preparation) and important uses of the following: Teflon, PVC, Polystyrene,

Nylon-66, teryene, Environmental pollution- pollutents-services-check and alternatives.

 

 

Unit 34: Surface Chemistry

 

 

Surface: Absorption

Colloids: (Preparation and general properties): emulsions, Miscelles.

Catalysis: Homogeneous and heterogeneous, Structure of catalyst.

 

 

Unit 35: Biomolecules

 

 

Carbohydrates: monosaccharides, Disaccharides, Polysaccharides, Amino Acids and

Peptides-Structure and classification.

Proteins and Enzymes-Structure of Proteins, Role of enzymes, Nucleic Acids-DNA and

RNA

Biological functions of Nucleic acid-proteins synthesis and replication.

 

 

Unit 36: Chemistry of Biological Process

 

 

Carbohydrates and their metabolism: Hemoglobin, blood and respiration; Immune

system; Vitamins and hormones. Simple ideas of chemical evolution.

 

 

Unit 37: Chemistry of Action

 

 

Dyes, chemicals in medicines. Rocket propelants.

(Structure formulae non – evaluative).

 

 

BIOLOGY

(Botany & Zoology) 

 

 

 

 

Unit1: The Living World

 

 

Nature and scope of Biology. Methods of Biology. Our place in the universe. Laws

that govern the universe and life. Levels of organization. Cause and effect relationship.

Being alive-What does it mean? Present approach to understand life process: molecular

approach; life as an expression of energy steady state and homeostasis; selfduplication

and survival; adaptation; death as a positive part of life. An attempt of define life in the

light of the above.

Origin of life and maintenance. Origin and diversity of life. Physical and chemical

principles that maintain life processes, the living crust and interdependence. The

positive and negative aspects of progress in biological sciences. The future of the living

world identification of human responsibility in shaping our future.

 

 

Unit 2: Unity of Life

 

 

Cell as unit of life. Small biomolecules: water, minerals, mono and oligosaccharides,

lipids, amino acids, nucleotides, and their chemistry, cellular location and function.

Macromolecules in cell-their chemistry, cellular location and function. Macromolecules

in cell Polysaccharides, proteins and nucleic acids. Enzymes: Chemical nature,

classification, mechanism in action – enzyme complex, allosteric modulation (brief),

irreversible activation. Biomembranes-Fluid mosaic model of membrane in transport of

the cell; light and electron microscopic views of cell, its organelles and their functions;

Nucleus, mitochondria, choloroplasts, endo-plasmic reticulum, Golgi complex,

Lysosomes, microtubules, cell wall, cillia and flagella, vacuoles, cell inclusions. A

general account of cellular respiration; Fermentation, biological oxidation (A cycle

outline), mitochondrial electron transport chain, high energy bonds and oxidative

phosphorylation cell reproduction : Process of mitosis and meiosis.

 

 

Unit 3: Diversity of Life

 

 

Introduction. The Enormous variety of living things, the need for classification to cope

with this variety; taxonomy and phylogeny; shortcoming of a two kingdom

classification as plants and animals; a five kingdom classification – Monera, Protista,

Plantae, Fungi and Animalia. The basic features of five kingdom classification; modes

of obtaining nutrition – autotrophs and heterotrops. Life styles-producers, consumers

and decomposers, unicellularity and multicellularity, phylogenetic relationship.

Concepts of species, taxon and categories – hierachial levels of classification,

bionominal nomenclature; principles of classification and nomenclature; identification

and nature of viruses and bacteriophages and organisms kingdom Moreraarcheabacteria

–life in exteme environment; Bacteria, actinomycetes; Cyanobacteria.

Examples to oillustrate autorophic and heterotrophs life style; mineralizernitogen

fixers; Monera in cycling matter; symbiotic forms;

diseasae producers. Kingdom Protistaeucaryotic unicellular organisms; development of

flagella and cilia; beginning of mitosis; syngamy and sex. various life styles shown in

the major phyla. Evolutionary procursors of complex life forms. Diatoms,

dinoflagellates, slime moulds, protozoans; symbiotic forms. Plant kingdom-complex

autotrophs, red, brown and green algae; conquest of land, broyphytes, ferns,

gymnosperms and angiosperms (salient features). Vascularzation; development of seedhabi:

development of flower and fruit. Kingdom fungi-lower fugi (zygomycetes) higher

fungi (Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes); the importance of fungi Decomposers;

parasitic forms; lichens and mycorrhizae, animal kingdom-animal body pattern and

symmerty. The development of body cavity in invertebrate vertebrate phyla. Salient

feature with referent to habitat and example of phylum-porifera, coelenterata,

helminthisi, annelids, mollusca, arthopoda, echinoderms; chrodata- (classes-fishes,

amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals) high-lighting major characters (no detailed

systemic study requires).

 

 

Unit 4: Organism and Environment

 

 

Species: Origin and concept of species population: Interaction between environment and

populations; community. Biotic community, interaction between different species,

biotic stability, changes in the community succession. Ecosystem; interaction between

biotic and abiotic components; major ecosystems man made ecosystem –

Agroecosystem. Biosphere: flow of energy trapping of solar energy, energy pathway,

food chain, food web, bioecochemical cyccle, calcium and sulphur, ecological

imbalance and its consequences. Conservation of natural resoureces: renewable and

non-renewable (in breif). Water and land management, wasteland development. Wild

life and forest conservation: causes for the extinction of some wild life endangered

species – Indian examples, conservation of forest Indian forests, importance of forests,

hazards of deforestation, afforestation. Environmental pollution : air and water

pollution, sources, major pollutants of big cities of our country, their effects and

methods of control, pollution due to nuclear flallout and waster disposal, effect and

control, noise pollution, souces and effects.

 

 

Unit 5: Multicellularity: Structure and Function – Plant Life

 

 

Form and function. Tissue system in flowering plants: meristematic and permanent

mineral nutrition essential elements, major function of different elements, passive and

active uptake of minerals. Modes of nutrition, transport of solutes and water in plants.

Photosynthesis: photochemical and biosynthetic phase, diversity of photosynthetic

pathways, photosynthetic electron transport and photo-phosphorylation, phtorespiration.

Transpiration and exchange of exchange of gases. Stomatal mechanism.

Osmoregulation in plants: water relations in plant cells, water potential. Reproduction

and development in angiosperms plants: a sexual and sexual. Structure and functions of

flower: development of male and female gamethophytes in angiosperms; pollination,

fertilization and development of endosperm, embryo, seed and fruit. Differentiation and

organ formation. Plant hormones and growth regulation: action of plant hormones in

relation to seed dormancy and germination, apical dominance, senescence and

abscission. Applications of synthetic growth regulators. A brief account of growth and

movement in plants. Photomorphogenesis in plants including a brief account of

phytochrome.

 

 

Unit 6:

Multicellularity : Structure and Function – Animal Life in General, with Special

 

 

 

Reference to Man

Animal tissues: epithelial, connective, muscular, nerve. Animal nutrition; organs of

digestion and digestive process, nutritional requirements for carbohydrates, proteins,

fats, minerals and vitamins: Nutritional imbalances and deficiency diseases. Gas

exchange and transport: Pulmonary gas exchange and organs involved, transport of

gases in blood, gas exchange in aqueous media. Circulation: closed and open vascular

systems, structure and pumping action of heart, arterial blood pressure, lymph.

Excertion and osmoregulation. Ammonotelism uricotelesim, ureotelism, excertion of

water and urea. Role of kidney inregualtion of plasma, osmolarity on the basis of

nephron structure, skin and lungs in excertion. Hormonal coordination: hormones of

mammals, role of hormones as messengers, and regulators. Nervous coordination :

central, autonomic and peripheral nervous system, receptors, effectros, reflex action,

basic physiology of special senses, integrative control by neuroendocrinal system.

Locomotion; joints; muscle movements, types of skeletal muscles according to types of

movement, basic aspects of human skeleton. Reproduction; human reproduction,

female reproductive cycle. Embryonic development in mammals (upto three germ

layers), growth repair and ageing.

 

 

Unit 7: Continuity of Life

 

 

Heredity and variation: Introduction, Mendel’s experiments with peas and ideas of

factors. Mandel’s law of inheritance. Genses: packaging of heredity material in

prokaryetes-bacterial chromosome; plasmid and eukaryote chromosomes. Extranuclear

genes, viral genes, linkage (genetic) maps. Sex determination and sex linkage. Genetic

expression, genetic code, transcription, translation, gene regulation. Molecular basis of

differentiation.

 

 

Unit 8: Origin and Evolution of Life.

 

 

Origin of Life: Living and non-living , chemical evolution, organic evolution, operain

ideas, miller- Urey experiments, Introduction, Role of Biology in the amelioration of

human problems. Domestication of plant a brief historical account, improvement of

crop plants: principles of plant breeding and plant introduction. Use of fertilizers -

economic and ecological aspects,

Use of pesticides: Advantages and hazards Biological methods of pest control. Crops

today. Current concerns, gene pools and genetic conservation. Under utilized crops

with potential uses for oilseeds, medicines, beverages, spices, fodder. New crops –

Leucaena (Subabul), Jojoba, Gauyule, Winged bean, etc. Biofertilisers – gree manure,

crop residues and nitrogen fixation (symbiotic, non symniotic). Applications of tissue

culture and genetic engineering in crop. Domestication and introduction of animals.

Livestock poultry, fisheries fresh water, marine; aquaculture, improvement of animals:

principles of animal breeding. Major animal diseases and their control. Insects and

their products (silk, honey, wax and lac). Bioenergy – biomass, wood (combustion,

gasification, ethanol). Cow dung cakes, gobar gas plant as source of hydrocarbons for

producing petroleum, ethanol from starch and lignocellulose. Biotechnology, a brief

historical account – manufacture of cheese, yogurt, alcohol, yeast, vitamins, organic

acids, anti-biotics, steroids, dextrins. Scaling up laboratory findings to industrial

production. Production of insulin, human growth hormones, interferon. Communicable

disease including STD and diseases spread through blood transfusion (hepatitis, AIDS

etc.). Immune response, vaccines and antisera. Allergies and inflammatiojn. Inherited

diseases and dysfunctions, sex-linked diseases, genetci incompatibilites and genetic

counselling. Cancer-major types, causes, diagnosis and treatment. Tissue and organ

transportation. Community health services and measures, blood banks. Mental health,

smoking, alcoholism and drug addicatin- physiological sympotoms and control

measures. Industrial wastes, toxicology, pollution-related diseases. Biomedical

engineering spare parts of man, instruments for diagnosis of diseases and care. Human

population growth, problem and control, inequality between sexes- control measures;

test-tube babies, amniocentesis. Future of Biology.

. Interrelationship among living organisms and evidences of evolution; fossil records

including geological time scale. Morphological evidence-hemology, vestigeal organs,

embryological similiarites and biogeographical evidence.

Darwin’s two major contribution: Common origin of living organisms and

recombination as sources of variability, selection acts upon variation, adaptation

(Lederberg’s replica plating isolation, speciation. Role of selection change and drift in

dtermining gemetic composition of population. Selected examples: Industrial melanism

: drug resistance, mimicry, malaria in relation to G-6-PD deficiency and sickle cell

disease. Human evolution: palcontological evidence, man’s place among mammals.

Brief idea of Dryopithecus. Australopithecus, homo erectus. H. Neanderthalensis, nonuman

primates to indicate common origin; Cultural vs viological evolution.

Mutation – Their role in speciation. Their origin in speciation, their origin in organisms

(This concept to be taught alongwith Darwin’s concepts of evolution).

 

 

Unit 9: Application of Biology

 

 

Introduction, Role of Biology in the amelioration of human problems. Domestication of

plant a brief historical account, improvement of crop plants: principles of plant breeding

and plant introduction. Use of fertilizers - economic and ecological aspects,

Use of pesticides: Advantages and hazards Biological methods of pest control. Crops

today. Current concerns, gene pools and genetic conservation. Under utilized crops

with potential uses for oilseeds, medicines, beverages, spices, fodder. New crops –

Leucaena (Subabul), Jojoba, Gauyule, Winged bean, etc. Biofertilisers – gree manure,

crop residues and nitrogen fixation (symbiotic, non symniotic). Applications of tissue

culture and genetic engineering in crop. Domestication and introduction of animals.

Livestock poultry, fisheries fresh water, marine; aquaculture, improvement of animals:

principles of animal breeding. Major animal diseases and their control. Insects and

their products (silk, honey, wax and lac). Bioenergy – biomass, wood (combustion,

gasification, ethanol). Cow dung cakes, gobar gas plant as source of hydrocarbons for

producing petroleum, ethanol from starch and lignocellulose. Biotechnology, a brief

historical account – manufacture of cheese, yogurt, alcohol, yeast, vitamins, organic

acids, anti-biotics, steroids, dextrins. Scaling up laboratory findings to industrial

production. Production of insulin, human growth hormones, interferon. Communicable

disease including STD and diseases spread through blood transfusion (hepatitis, AIDS

etc.). Immune response, vaccines and antisera. Allergies and inflammatiojn. Inherited

diseases and dysfunctions, sex-linked diseases, genetci incompatibilites and genetic

counselling. Cancer-major types, causes, diagnosis and treatment. Tissue and organ

transportation. Community health services and measures, blood banks. Mental health,

smoking, alcoholism and drug addicatin- physiological sympotoms and control

measures. Industrial wastes, toxicology, pollution-related diseases. Biomedical

engineering spare parts of man, instruments for diagnosis of diseases and care. Human

population growth, problem and control, inequality between sexes- control measures;

test-tube babies, amniocentesis. Future of Biology.

 

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